Probate is essentially an official recognition that a Will is legally valid and gives permission to proceed with administering the estate. An application for a grant of probate is made at the Probate Registry of the Supreme Court. The grant is a document certifying that the Supreme Court recognises the authority of the executor or executors to deal with the estate. The executor can then administer the Will, for example collect assets, pay debts of the deceased and distribute the estate as directed.
If you die without a Will, the grant is called ‘Letters of Administration’.